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Radiographic Imaging

Radiography > Radiography Theory

Materials Included:

  • text-icoText
  • video-icoVideo
  • 3d-anatomyAnatomy
  • practiseQuiz
This theory module teaches you the key concepts that underpin radiographic imaging such as scatter radiation, exposure, and field size, and the tools and techniques available to create high-quality X-ray images.

This theory module teaches you the key concepts that underpin radiographic imaging such as scatter radiation, exposure, and field size, and the tools and techniques available to create high-quality X-ray images. It covers important foundational knowledge that is required in order to perform radiographic procedures accurately and manage the factors that affect X-ray image quality. If you are studying for the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists® (ARRT) registry exams, this module is an ideal resource.


You’ll learn

  • how scatter radiation affects image contrast and how to control scatter
  • how to apply radiographic grids to a clinical situation
  • the role of exposure factors in radiographic images
  • how to identify and manage the various factors that can affect image quality, including film, geometric and subject factors
  • much more (see “content details” for more specific information)
Step 1 - Beam-restricting devices
Step 1.1 - Scatter radiation
Step 1.1.1 - Kilovoltage (kV)
Step 1.1.2 - Field size
Step 1.1.3 - Patient thickness
Step 1.2 - Control of scatter
Step 1.2.1 - Effect of scatter on image contrast
Step 1.2.2 - Beam restrictors
Step 2 - Radiographic grids
Step 2.1 - Grids
Step 2.1.1 - Grid ratio
Step 2.1.2 - Grid frequency
Step 2.1.3 - Grid strip
Step 2.2 - Grid performance
Step 2.2.1 - Contrast improvement factor (<em>k</em>)
Step 2.2.2 - Bucky factor (B)
Step 2.3 - Grid types
Step 2.4 - Grid problems
Step 2.4.1 - Off-center grid (lateral decentering)
Step 2.4.2 - Off-level grid
Step 2.4.3 - Off-focus grid
Step 2.4.4 - Upside-down grid
Step 2.5 - Grid selection
Step 2.5.1 - Patient dose
Step 2.6 - Air-gap technique
Step 3 - Radiographic exposure
Step 3.1 - Kilovoltage (kV)
Step 3.2 - Milliampere (mA)
Step 3.3 - Exposure time
Step 3.4 - Distance
Step 3.5 - Imaging system characteristics
Step 3.5.1 - Focal-spot size
Step 3.5.2 - Filtration
Step 3.5.3 - High-voltage generation
Step 4 - Image quality
Step 4.1 - Definitions
Step 4.1.1 - Radiographic quality
Step 4.1.2 - Resolution
Step 4.1.3 - Noise
Step 4.1.4 - Speed
Step 4.2 - Film factors
Step 4.2.1 - Characteristic curve
Step 4.2.2 - Optical density (OD)
Step 4.2.3 - Film processing
Step 4.3 - Geometric factors
Step 4.3.1 - Magnification
Step 4.3.2 - Distortion
Step 4.3.3 - Focal spot blur
Step 4.3.4 - Heel effect
Step 4.4 - Subject factors
Step 4.4.1 - Subject contrast
Step 4.4.2 - Motion blur
Step 4.5 - Tools for improving radiographic quality
Step 4.5.1 - Patient position
Step 4.5.2 - Image receptors
Step 4.5.3 - Selection of technique factors
Step 5 - Radiographic technique
Step 5.1 - Patient factors
Step 5.1.1 - Thickness
Step 5.1.2 - Composition
Step 5.1.3 - Pathology
Step 5.2 - Image quality factors
Step 5.2.1 - Optical density (OD)
Step 5.2.2 - Contrast
Step 5.2.3 - Detail
Step 5.2.4 - Distortion
Step 5.3 - Exposure technique factors
Step 5.4 - Automatic exposure control (phototimer)
  • Understand the production and control of scatter radiation and its effect on image contrast
  • Describe the construction and performance characteristics of grids and apply this knowledge to the correct clinical situation
  • Understand and discuss the relationship of factors that may influence x-ray quantity and quality
  • Understand the purpose and construction, and explain the use, of the three types of technique charts
  • Apply knowledge of the three major interrelated categories of radiographic quality
  • Discuss the tools and techniques available to create high-quality images
  • Identify and discuss the three categories of radiographic artifacts and explain their causes

The SIMTICS modules are all easy to use and web-based. This means they are available at any time as long as the learner has an internet connection. No special hardware or other equipment is required, other than a computer mouse for use in the simulations. Each of the SIMTICS modules covers one specific procedure or topic in detail. Each module contains:

  • an online simulation (available in Learn and Test modes)
  • descriptive text, which explains exactly how to perform that particular procedure including
  • 2D images and a 3D model of applied anatomy for that particular topic
  • a step by step video demonstration by an expert
  • a quiz
  • a personal logbook that keeps track of all the modules the learner has studied and how long

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